Chapter 1Introduction to the Marketing
Kotler on Marketing
What are customer value and satisfaction, and how can companies deliver them?
How can companies both attract and retain customers?
How can companies improve both customer and company profitability?
Today it is fashionable to talk about the new economy. We hear that businesses are operating in a globalizes economy; that things are moving at a nanosecond pace; that our markets are characterized by hyper-competition; that disruptive technologies are challenging every business; and that business must adapt to the empowered consumer.
The old economy seemed simpler it was based on the Industrial Revolution and on man-aging manufacturing industries. Manufacturers applied certain principles and practices for the successful operation of their factories. They standardized products in order to bring down costs. They aimed to continually expand their market size to achieve economies of scale. They tended to replicate their procedures and policies in every geographic market. The goal was efficiency; and to accomplish this, the firm was managed hierarchically, with a boss on top issuing orders to middle managers, who in turn guided the workers.
The new economy, in contrast, is based on the digital revolution and the management of information. Information has a number of attributes. It can be infinitely differentiated, customized, and personalized. It can be dispatched to a great number of people who are on a network and it can reach them with great speed. To the extent that the information is public and accessible, people will be better informed and able to make better choices.
1. The new economy
The digital revolution has placed a whole neb' set of capabilities in the hands of consumers and businesses. Consider what consumers have today that they didn’t have yesterday:
A substantial increase in buying power. Buyers today are only a click away from comparing competitor prices and product attributes. They can get answers on the Internet in a mater of seconds. They don't need to drive to stores, park, wait on line, and hold discussions with salespeople. On Priceline.com, consumers can even name the price the}, wan t to pay from a hotel room airline ticket, or mortgage and see if there are any willing supplier.
Business buyers can run a reverse auction where sellers compete during a given time period to capture the buyer's business. Buyers can join with others to aggregate their purchases to achieve deeper volume discounts.
A greater variety of available goods and services. Today a person can order almost anything over the Internet: furniture (Ethan Allen), washing machines (Sears), management consulting ("Ernie'), medical advice (cyberdocs). Amazon.com advertises itself as the world's largest bookstore, with over 3 million hooks; no physical bookstore can match this. Furthermore, buyers can order these goods from anywhere in the world, which helps people living in countries with very limited local offerings to achieve great savings.
A great amount of information about practically anything. People can read almost any new paper in any language from anywhere in the world. They can access on line encyclopedias, dictionaries, medical information, movie ratings, consumer reports, and countless other information sources.
A greater case in interacting and placing and receiving orders. Today's buyers can place orders from home, office, or mobile phone 24 hours a day; 7 days a week, and the orders will be delivered to their home or office quickly.
An ability to compare notes on products and services. Today's customers can enter a chat room centered on some area of common interest and exchange information and opinions.
Women can visit village to discuss common family problems; movie lovers can visit any number of movie chat rooms to share ideas.
Today’s companies so have a new set of capabilities:
Companies can operate powerful new information and sales channel with augmented geographical reach to inform and promote their business and products.
Companies can collect fuller and richer information about markets, customers, prospects, and competitors.
Companies can facilitate and speed up internal communication among their employees.
Companies can have two-way communications with customers and prospects, and more efficient transactions.
Companies are now able to sent ads, coupons, samples, and information to customers who have requested these items or have given the company permission to send them.
Companies can customize offerings and services to individual customers.
Companies can improve purchasing, recruiting, training, and internal and external communications.
Companies can substantially improve logistics and operations for substantial cost savings while improving accuracy and service quality.
The new capabilities unleashed by the information age will lead to substantially new forms of marketing and business. The industrial age was characterized by mass-production and mass-consumption, stores overstuffed with inventory, ads everywhere, and rampant discounting. The information age promises to lead to more accurate levels of production, more targeted communications, and more relevant pricing.
2. Marketing Task
A recent book entitled Radical Marketing praises companies such as Harley-Davidson, Virgin Atlantic Airways, and Boston Beer for succeeding by breaking all the rules o f marketing. Instead of commissioning expensive marketing research, spending huge sums on mass advertising, and operating large marketing departments, these companies stretched their limited resources, stayed in close contact with their customers, and created more satisfying solutions to customer needs. They formed buyers' clubs, used creative public relations, and focused on delivering high product quality and winning long term customer loyalty. (See "Marketing Insight: The Ten Rules of Radical Marketing")
We can distinguish three stages through which marketing practice might pass:
1. Entrepreneurial marketing: Most complies ate started by individuals who live by their wits. They visualize an opportunity and knock on every door to gain attention.
2. Formulated marketing: As small companies achieve success, they inevitably move toward more formulated marketing.
3. Entrepreneurial marketing; Many large companies get stuck in formulated marketing, poring over the latest Nielsen numbers, scanning market search reports, trying to fine-tune dealer relations and advertising merges.
Marketing is typically seen as the task of creating, promoting, and delivering goods and services to consumers and businesses, Marketers alp skilled in stimulating demand for a company's products, but this is too limited a view of the tasks marketers performs. Just as production and logistics professionals are responsible for supply management, marketers are responsible for demand management. Marketing managers seek to influence the level, timing, and composition of demand to meet the organization’s objectives.
Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities: goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas
These questions vary in importance in different marketplaces. Consider the following four markets: consumer, business, global, and nonprofit.
Marketing boasts a rich array of concepts and tools. We will first define marketing, and then describe its major concepts and tools.
We can distinguish between a social and a managerial definition of marketing. A social definition shows the role marketing plays in society. One marketer said that marketing’s role is to “deliver a higher standard of living”. Here is a social definition that serves our purpose: Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and, freely exchanging products and services of value with others. For a managerial definition, marketing has often been described as "tile art of selling products," but people are surprised when they hear that the most important part of marketing is not selling! Selling is only tile tip of tile marketing iceberg.
Core marketing concepts
Marketing can be further understood by defining several of its core concepts.
TARGET MARKETS AND SEGMENTATION A marketer can rarely satisfy everyone in a market. Not everyone likes the same soft drink, hotel room, restaurant, automobile, college, and movie. Therefore, marketers start by dividing up tile market. They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might prefer or require varying product and services mixes. Market segments can be identified by examining demographic, psycho-graphic, and behavioral differences among buyers. The marketer then decides which segments present tile greatest opportunities--which are its target markets. For each chosen target market, the firm develops a market offering. The offering is positioned in the minds of the target buyers as delivering some central benefit(s).
MARKETPLACE, MARKETSPACE, AND METAMARKET Businesspeople often use the term market to cover various groupings of customers They talk about need markets (the diet-seeking market), product markets (fire shoe market), demographic markets (the youth market), and geographic markets (the French market); or they extend the concept to cover other markets, such as voter markets, labor markets, and donor markets.
MARKETERS AND PROSPECTS a marketer is someone seeking a response (attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation) from another party, called the prospect. If two parties are seeking to sell something to each other, we call them both marketers.
NEEDS, WANTS, AND DEMANDS The marketer must try to understand the target market's needs, wants, and demands, Needs are the basic human requirements, People need food, air, water, clothing, and shelter to survive. People also have strong needs for recreation, education, and entertainment. These needs become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need.
PRODUCT OFFERING AND BRAND Companies address needs by putting forth a value proposition, a set of benefits they offer to customers to satisfy their needs. The intangible value proposition is made physical by an offering, which can be a combination of products, services, information, and experiences.
VALUE AND SATISFACYION The offering will be successful if it delivers value and satisfaction to the target buyer. The buyer chooses between different offerings on the basis of which is perceived to deliver the most value. Value can be seen as primarily a combination of quality, service, and price (QSP), called the customer value triad. Value increases with quality and service and decreases with price.
RELATIONSHIPS AND NETWORKS Transaction marketing is part of a larger idea called relationship marketing. Relationship marketing has tile aim of building mutually satisfying long-term relations with key parries--customers, suppliers, distributors--in order to earn and retain their business." Marketers accomplish this by promising and delivering high-quality products and services at fair prices to the other parties over time, Relationship marketing builds strong economic, technical, and social ties among the parties, and it cuts down on transaction costs and time. In the most successful cases, transactions move from being negotiated each time to being a matter of routine.
MARKETING CHANNELS to reach a target market, tile marketer uses three kinds of marketing channels. Communication channels deliver and receive messages from target buyers, and include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, mail telephone, bill-boards, posters, fliers, CDs, audiotapes, and tile Internet. Beyond these, communications are conveyed by facial expressions and clothing, the look of retail stores, and many other media. Marketers are increasingly adding dialogue channels (e-marl and toll-free numbers) to counterbalance the more normal monologue channels (such as ads).
SUPPLY CHAIN Whereas marketing channels connect the marketer to the target buyers, the supply chain describes a longer chapel stretching from raw materials to components to final products that are carried to final buyers. The supply chain for women's purses starts with hides, and moves through tanning operations, cutting operations, manufacturing, and the marketing channels bringing products to customers. The supply chain represents a value delivery system. Each company captures only a certain percentage of the total value generated by the supply chain. When a company acquires competitors or moves upstream or downstream, its aim is to capture a higher percentage of supply chain value.
COMPETITION competition includes all the actual and potential rival offerings and substitutes that a buyer might consider.
MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Competition represents only one force in the environment in which the marketer operates. The marketing environment consists of the task environment and the broad environment.
MARKEIING PROGRAM The marketer's task is to build a marketing program or plan to achieve the company's desired objectives. 33to marketing program consists of numerous decisions on the mix of marketing tools to use. The marketing mix is the set of marketing tools the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market.
We have defined marketing management as the conscious effort to achieve desired exchange outcomes with targets markets, but what philosophy should guide a company's marketing efforts? What relative weights should be given to the interests of the organization, the customers, and society? Very often these interests conflict.
The production concept
The production concept is one of the oldest concepts in business. The production concept holds that consumers will prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Managers of production-oriented businesses concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs, and mass-distribution. They assume that consumers are primarily interested in product availability and low prices. This orientation makes sense in developing countries, where consumers are more interested in obtaining the product than in its features. It is also used when a company wants to expand the market.
The product concept
Other businesses are guided by the product concept, which holds that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features.
Managers in these organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time. They assume that buyers admire well-made products and can evaluate quality and performance. However, these managers are sometimes caught up in a love affair with their products. Management might commit the "better-mousetrap" fallacy, believing that a better mousetrap will lead people to beat a path to its door. Such was the case when WebTV was launched during Christmas 1996 to disappointing results.
The selling concept
The selling concept is another common business orientation. The selling concept holds that consumers and business, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. This concept assumes that consumers typically show buying inertia or resistance and must be coaxed into buying. It also assumes that the company has a whole battery of effective selling and promotion tools to stimulate more buying. The selling concept is epitomized by the thinking of Sergio Zyman, Coca-Cola's former vice president of marketing: The purpose of marketing is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit.
The marketing concept
The marketing concept emerged in the mid-1950s and challenged the preceding concepts. Instead of a product-centered, "make-and-sell' philosophy, we shift to a customer-centered, "sense-and-respond "philosophy Instead of "hunting," marketing is "gardening”. The job is not to find the right customers for your product, but tile right products for your customers. As stated by the famed direct marketer Lester Wunrderman, "Tile chant of the Industrial Revolution was that of file manufacturer who said, 'This is what I make, won't you please buy it.' The call of the Information Age is the consumer asking, that is what I want, and won’t you please make it.
The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving its organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value to its chosen target markets. It crystallized in the mid-1950s and has been expressed in many colorful ways:
"Meeting needs profitably"
"Find wants and fills them"
"Love the customer, not the product"
"Have it your way." (Burger King)
"You're the boss." (United Airlines)
"Putting people first." (British Airways)
"Partners for profit." (Milliken & Company)
The customer concept
Today many companies are moving beyond the marketing concept to the customer concept.
Whereas companies practicing the marketing concept work at the level of customer segments, a growing number of today's companies are now shaping separate offers, services, and messages to individual customers. These companies collect information on each customer's past transactions, demographics, psychographics, and media and distribution preferences. They hope to achieve profitable growth through capturing a larger share of each customer's expenditures by building high customer loyalty and focusing on customer lifetime value.
The ability of a company to deal with customers one at a time has become practical as a result of advances in factory customization, computers, the Internet, and database marketing software. Yet the practicing of a one-to-one marketing is not for every company: The required investment in information collection, hardware, and software may exceed the payout. It works best for companies that normally collect a great deal of individual customer information, carry a lot of products that can be cross-sold, carry products that need periodic replacement or upgrading, and sell products of high value.
The societal marketing concept
Some have questioned whether the marketing concept is an appropriate philosophy in an age of environmental deterioration, resource shortages, explosive population growth, world hunger and poverty, and neglected social services. Are companies that do an excellent job of satisfying consumer wants necessarily acting in the best long-run interests of consumers and society? The marketing concept sidesteps the potential conflicts among consumer wants, consumer interests, and long-run, societal welfare.
We can say with some confidence that "the marketplace isn't what it used to be,' It is changing radically as a rest& of major societal forces such as technological advances, globalization, and deregulation. These major forces have created new behaviors and challenges:
Customers increasingly expect higher quality and service and some customization. They perceive fewer real product differences and show le~ brand loyalty. They can obtain extensive product information from the Internet and other sources, which permit them to shop more intelligently. They are showing greater prim sensitivity in their search for value.
Brand manufacturers are facing intense competition from domestic and foreign brads, which is resulting in rising promotion costs and shrinking profit margins. They are being further buffeted by powerful retailers who command limited shelf space and are putting out their own store brands m competition with national brands.
Store-based retailers are suffering. Small retainers are succumbing to the growing power of giant retailers and "category killers."
Store-based retailers are facing growing competition from catalog houses; direct-mail firms; newspaper, magazine, and TV direct-to-customer ads; home shopping TV; and e-commerce on the internet. As a result, they are experiencing shrinking margins. In respond, entrepreneurial retailers are building entertainment into stores with coffee bars, lectures, demonstrations, and performances. They are marketing an "experience" rather than a product assortment.
Company responses and adjustments
Companies are doing a lot of soul-searching and many highly respected companies a changing in a number of ways. Here are some current trends:
Reengineering: From focusing on functional departments to reorganizing by key processes, each managed by a multidiscipline team.
Outsourcing: From making everything inside the company to buying more goods and services tram outside if they are cheaper anti better. More companies are preferring own brands rather than physical assets; they are recapitalizing. A few companies moving toward outsourcing everything, making them virtual companies owning very few assets and, therefore, earning extraordinary rates of return.
E-commerce: From attracting customers to stores and having salespeople call on offices making virtually products available on the internet Consumers can access pictures of products, read the specs, shop among on-line vendors for the bat prices and terms, a click to order and pay. Business-to business purchasing is growing east on the internet. Personal selling can increasingly be conducted electronically, with buyer and sellers seeing each other on their computer screens in real time.
Benchmarking: From relying on self-improvement to studying 'world-class performance and adopting "best practices."
Alliances: From trying to win alone to forming networks of partner firms.
Partner-suppliers: From using many suppliers to using fewer but more reliable suppliers who work closely in a "partnership" relationship with the company.
Market-centered: From organizing by products to organizing by market segment.
Global and local: From being local to being both global and local, called "glocal."
Decentralized: From being managed from the top to encouraging more imitative and “entrepreneurship' at the local level.
Marketer responses and adjustments
Marketers also are rethinking their philosophies, concepts, and tools. Here are the major marketing themes in the new economy:
Customer relationship marketing: Prom focusing on transactions to building Long-term profitable customer relationships. Companies focus on their most profitable customers, products, and channels.
Customer lifetime value: From making a profit on each sale to making profits by managing life-time sales. Some companies offer to deliver a constantly needed product on a regular basis at a lower price per unit because they will capture the customer's business for a longer period.
Customer share: From a focus on gaining market share to a focus on building customer share. A bank aims to increase its share of the customer's wallet; the supermarket aims to capture a larger share of the customer's "stomach." Companies build customer share by offering a larger variety of goods to existing customers. They train their employees in cross-selling and up-selling.
Target marketing: From selling to everyone to trying to be the best firm serving well-defined target markets. Target marketing is being facilitated by the proliferation of special-interest magazines, TV channels, and Internet newsgroups.
Customization: From selling the same offer in the same way to everyone ill the target market to individualizing and customizing messages and offerings.
Customer database: From collecting sales data to building a rich data warehouse of information about individual customers' purchases, preferences, and demographics, and profitability. Companies can then apply data-mining techniques to discover new segments and trends hidden in the data.
Integrated marketing communications: From heavy reliance on one communication tool such as advertising or sales force to blending several tools to deliver a consistent brand image to customers at every brand contact.
Channels as partners: From thinking of intermediaries as customers to treating them as partners in delivering value to final customers.
Some companies navigate all these pitfalls to reach their customer value and satisfaction goals. We call these companies high-performance businesses. The consulting firm of Arthur D. Little proposed a model of the characteristics of a high-performance business. It pointed to the four factors shown in Figure 3.2 as keys to success: stakeholders, processes, resources, and organization.
As its first stop on the road to high performance, the business must define its stakeholders and their needs. Traditionally, most businesses focused on their stockholders. Today's businesses are increasingly recognizing that unless they nurture other stakeholders-customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, the business may never earn sufficient profits for the stockholders.
A company can aim to deliver satisfaction levels above tile minimum for different stakeholders. For example, it might aim to delight its customers, perform well for its employees, and deliver a threshold level of satisfaction to its suppliers. In setting these levels, a company must be careful not to violate the various stakeholder groups' sense of fairness about the relative treatment they are getting.
There is a dynamic relationship connecting the stakeholder groups. A smart company creates a high level of employee satisfaction, which leads to higher effort, which leads to higher-quality products and services, which create higher customer satisfaction, which leads to more repeat business, which leads to higher growth and profits, which leads to high stockholder satisfaction, which leads to more investment, and so on. This is the virtuous circle that spells profits and growth.
A company can accomplish its stakeholder goals only by managing and linking work processes. High-performance companies are increasingly focusing on the need to manage core business processes such as new-product development, customer attraction and retention, and order fulfillment. They are reengineering the work flows and building cross-functional teams responsible for each process.
To carry out its business processes, a company needs resources---labor power, materials, machines, information, and energy: Traditionally, companies owned and controlled most of the resources that entered their businesses, but this situation is changing. Some resources under their control ale not performing as well as those that they could obtain hx3m outside. Many companies today outsource less critical resources if they can be obtained at better quality or lower cost. Frequently, outsourced resources include cleaning services, land scoping, and auto fleet management. Kodak even turned over the management of its data processing department to IBM. Here are two examples of successful outsourcing.
The key, then, is to own and nurture the core resources and competencies that make up the essence of the business. Nike, for example, does not manufacture its own shoes, because certain Asian manufacturers are more competent in this task; but Nike nurtures its superiority in shoe design and shoe merchandising its two core competencies. We can say that a core competency has three characteristics: (1)It is a source of competitive advantage in that it makes a significant contribution to perceived customer benefits, (2)it has a breadth of applications to a wide variety of markets, and (3)it is difficult for competitors to imitate.
Competitive advantage also accrues to companies that possess distinctive capabilities. Whereas core competencies tend to refer to areas of special technical and production expertise, distinctive capabilities tend to describe excellence in broader business processes. For example, Wal-Mart bas a distinctive capability in product replenishment, based on several core competencies including information system design and logistics.
Competitive advantage ultimately derives from how well the company has "fitted" its core competencies and distinctive capabilities into tightly interlocking "activity systems.” Competitors find it hard to imitate companies such as Southwest Airlines, Dell, or IKEA because they are unable to copy their activity systems.
◆ Organization and Organizational culture
A company's organization consists of its structures, policies, and corporate culture, all of which can become dysfunctional in a rapidly changing business environment. Whereas structures and policies can be changed (with difficulty), the company's culture is very hard to change. Yet changing a corporate culture is often the key to successfully implementing a new strategy.
What exactly is a corporate culture? Most businesspeople would be hard pressed to find words to describe this elusive concept, which some define as "the shared experiences, stories, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization'. Yet, walk into any company and the first thing that strikes you is the corporate culture--the way people are dressed, how they talk to one another, the way they greet customers.
Sometimes corporate culture develops organically and is transmitted directly from the CEO's personality and habits to the company employees. Such is the case with computer giant Microsoft, which began as an entrepreneurial upstart. Even as it has grown to a $23-billion company, Microsoft has not lost the hard-driving culture perpetuated by founder Bill Gates. In fact, most feel that Microsoft's ultra competitive culture is the biggest key to its success and to its much-criticized dominance in the computing industry.
In a hypercompetitive economy with increasingly rational buyers, a company can only win by creating and delivering superior value. This involves the following five capabilities: understanding customer value; creating customer value; delivering customer value; capturing customer value; and sustaining customer value. To succeed, a company needs to use the concepts of a value chain and a value-delivery network. Value chain
Michael Porter of Harvard proposed the value chain as a tool for identifying ways to create mom customer value. Every firm is a synthesis of activities that are performed to design, produce, and market, deliver, and support its product. The value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities that create value and cost ill a specific business. These nine value-creating activities consist of five primary activities and four support activities.
The priory activities represent the sequence of bringing materials into the business (inbound logistics), converting them into final products (operations), shipping out final products (outbound logistics), marketing them (marketing and sales), and servicing them (service). The support activities-procurement, technology development, human resource management, and firm infrastructure--are handled in certain specialized departments, but not only there. For example, several departments may do some procurement and hiring of people. The firm's infrastructure covers tile costs of general management, planning, finance, accounting, legal, and government affairs that are borne by all the primary and support activities.
The firm's task is to examine its costs and performance iii each value-creating activity and to look for ways to improve it. The firm should estimate its competitors' costs and performances as benchmarks against which to compare its own costs and performances. It should go further and study the "best of class" practices of the world's best companies.
The firm's success depends not only on how well each department performs its work, but also on how well tile various departmental activities are coordinated. Too often, company departments act to maximize their interests. A credit department may take a long time to check a prospective customer's credit so as not to incur bad debts. Meanwhile, the customer waits and the salesperson is frustrated. A traffic department chooses to ship the goods by rail to save money and again the customer waits. Each department has erected walls that slow down the delivery of quality customer service. The solution to tiffs problem is to place more emphasis on file smooth management of core business processes.
These core business processes include:
1 The market sensing process: All the activities involved ha gathering market intelligence, disseminating it within the organization, and acting on the information.
2 The new offering realization process: All the activities involved in researching, developing, and latching new high-quality offerings quickly and within budget.
3 The customer acquisition process: All the activities involved in defining target markets and prospecting for new customer.
4 The customer relationship management process: All the activities involved in building deeper understanding, relationships, and offerings to individual customers.
5 The fulfillment management process: All the activities involved in receiving and approving orders, shipping the goods on time, and collecting payment.
Strong companies develop superior capabilities in managing their core processes. For example, Wal-Mart has superior strength in its stock replenishment process. As Wal-Mart stores sell their goods, sales information flows via computer not only to Wal-Mart's headquarters, but also to Wal-Mart's suppliers, who ship replacement merchandise to the stores almost at the rate it moves off the shelf. The idea is not to manage stocks of goods, but flows of goods, and Wal-Mart has turned over this responsibility to its leading vendors in a system known as vendor-managed inventories (VMI).
◆ The value-delivery network
To be successful a firm also needs to look for competitive advantages beyond its own operations, into the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. Many companies today have partnered with specific suppliers and distributors to create a superior value-delivery network (also called a supply chain).
In addition to working with partners--called partner relationship management (PRM)-many companies are intent on developing stronger bonds with their customers-called customer relationship management (CRM). This is tile process of managing detailed information about individual customers and carefully managing all the customer "touch points” with the aim of maximizing customer loyalty.
◆ Attracting customers
Today's customers are becoming harder to please. They are smarter, more price conscious, more demanding, less forgiving, mid they are approached by manly more competitors with equal or better offers. The challenge, according to Jeffrey Gitomer, is not to produce satisfied customers; several competitors can do this. Tile challenge is to produce delighted and loyal customers.
Companies seeking to expand their profits and sales have to spend considerable time and resources searching for new customers. To generate leads, the company develops ads and places them in media that wed reach new prospects; it sends direct mail and makes phone calls to possible new prospects; its salespeople participate in trade shows where they might find new leads; and so on. All this activity produces a list of suspects. The next task is to identify which suspects really good prospects, by interviewing them, are checking on their financial standing, and so on. Then it is time to send out the salespeople.
◆ Computing the cost of lost customers
It is not enough to be skillful in attracting new customers; the company must keep them and increase their business. Too many companies suffer from high customer churn, namely, high customer defection. It is like adding water to a lacking bucket Cellular carriers, for example, are plagued with "spinners," customers who switch carriers at least three times a year looking for the best deal. Many lose 25 percent of there subscribers each year at an estimated cost of $2 billion to $4 billion.
There are steps a company can take to reduce the defection rate First, the company must define and measure its retention rate. For a magazine, the renewal rate is a good measure of retention. For a college, it could be the first-to second-year retention rate, or the class graduation rate. Second, the company must distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better.
Third, the company needs to estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customers. In the case of an individual customer, the lost profit is equal to the customer's lifetime value--that is, the present value of the profit stream that the company would have realized if the customer had not defected prematurely.
Fourth, the company needs to figure out how much it would cost to reduce the defection rate. As long as the cost is less than the lost profit, the company should spend the money.
Finally, nothing beats listening to customers. Some companies have mated an ongoing mechanism that keeps senior managers permanently plugged in to front-line customer feedback. MBNA, the credit-card giant, asks every executive to listen in on telephone conversations ill the customer service area or customer recovery units. Deere & Company, which makes John Deere tractors and has a superb record of customer loyalty nearly 98 percent annual retention in some product areas--uses retired employees to interview defectors and customers.
◆ The need for customer retention
Unfortunately, most marketing theory and practice centers on the art of attracting new customers rather than on retaining and cultivating existing ones. The emphasis traditionally has been on making sales rather than building relationships; on pre-selling and selling rather than caring for the customer afterward. A company would be wise to measure customer satisfaction regularly, because the key to customer retention is customer satisfaction.
A highly satisfied customer stays loyal longer, buys more as the company introduces new products and upgrades existing products, talks favorable) about the company and its products, pays less attention to competing brands and is less sensitive to price, offers product or service ideas to the company, and costs less to serve than new customers because transactions are routine.
Some companies think they are getting a sense of customer satisfaction by tallying customer complaints, but 96 percent of dissatisfied customers don't complain; many just stop buying. The best thing a company can do is to make it easy for the customer to complain. Suggestion forms and toll-free numbers and e-mail addresses serve this purpose. The 3M Company claims that over two-thirds of its product-improvement ideas come from listening to customer complaints.
Listening is not enough, however. The company must respond quickly and constructively to the complaints:
Of the customers who register a complaint, between 54 and 70% will do business again with the organization ii their complaint is resolved. The figure goes up to a staggering 95% ii the customer feels that the complaint was resolved quickly. Customers who have complained to an organization and had their complaints satisfactorily resolved tell an average of five people about the good treatment they received.
Today, more companies are recognizing the importance of satisfying and retaining customers. Satisfied customers constitute the company's relationship capital. If the company were to be sold, the acquiring company would have to pay not only for the plant and equipment and the brand name, but also for the delivered customer base, namely, the number and value of the customers who would do business with the new firm. Here are some Interesting facts bearing on customer retention:
l. Acquiring new customers can cost five limes more than the cost involved in satisfying and retaining current customers. It requires a great deal of effort to induce satisfied customers to switch away from their turret suppliers
2. The average comply loses 10 percent of its customers each year.
3. A 5 percent reduction in the customer defection rate can Increase profits by 25 percent to 85 percent, depending on the industry.
4. The customer profit rate tends to Increase over tile life of the retained customer.
◆ Measuring customer lifetime value
The case for increasing the customer retention rate is captured in the concept of customer lifetime value (CLV). Customer lifetime value (CLV) describes the present value of the stream of future profits expected over the customer's lifetime purchases. The company must subtract from the expected revenues the expected costs of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer. Various estimates have been made for different products and services.
There are two ways to strengthen customer retention. One is to erect high switching barriers. Customers are less inclined to switch to another supplier when this would involve high capital costs, high search costs, or the loss of loyal-customer discounts. The better approach is to deliver high customer satisfaction. This makes it harder for competitors to offer just lower prices or switching inducements. The task of creating strong customer loyalty is called customer relationship management.
◆ Customer relationship management (CRM): the key
The aim of customer relationship management (CRM) is to produce high customer equity. Customer equity is the total of the discounted lifetime values of all of the firm's customers. Clearly, the more loyal the customers, the higher the customer equity. Rust, Zenithal, and Lemon distinguish three drivers of customer equity: value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity.
1 Value equity is the customer's objective assessment of the utility of an offering based on perceptions of its benefits relative to its costs. The sub drivers of value equity are quality, price, and convenience. Each industry has to define the specific factors underlying each sub driver in order to find programs to improve value equity. An airline passenger might define quality as seat width; a hotel guest might define quality as room size. Value equity makes the biggest contribution to customer equity when products are differentiated and when they are more complex and need to be evaluated. Value equity especially drives customer equity in business markets.
2 Brand equity is the customer's subjective and intangible assessment of the brand, above and beyond its objectivity perceived value. The sub drive of brand equity is customer brand awareness, customer attitude toward the brand, and customer perception of brand ethics. Companies use advertising, public relation, and other communication tools to affect these sub drivers. Brand equity is more important than the other drivers of customer equity where products are less differentiated and have more emotional impact.
3 Relationship equity is the customer's tendency to stick with the brand, above and beyond objective and subjective assessments of its worth. Sub drivers of relationship equity include loyalty programs, special recognition and treatment programs, community building programs, and knowledge building progress. Relationship equity is especially important where personal relationships count for a lot and where customers tend to continue with suppliers out of habit or inertia.
This formulation integrates value management, brand management, and relationship management within a customer-centered focus. Companies can decide which driver(s) to strengthen for the best payoff. The researchers believe they can measure and compare the financial return of alternative investments. Companies now have a better frame work for choosing strategies and actions based on which would provide the best return on marketing investments.
◆ Forming strong customer bonds: the basics
Companies that want to from strong customer bonds need to attend to the following basics:
1 Get cross-departmental participation in planning and managing the customer satisfaction and retention process.
2 Integrate the Voice of the Customer in all business decisions.
3 Create superior products, services, and experiences for the target market.
4 Organize and make accessible a database of information on individual customer needs preferences, contacts, purchase frequency, and satisfaction.
5 Make it easy for customers to reach appropriate company personnel and express their needs, perceptions, and complaints.
6 Run awed programs recognizing outstanding employees.
ADDING FINANCIAL BENEFITS Two financial benefits that companies can offer are frequency programs and club marketing programs. Frequency programs (FPs) are designed to provide rewards to customers who buy frequently and in substantial amounts. Frequency marketing is an acknowledgment of the fact that 20 percent of a company's customers might account for 80 percent of its business.
Typically, the first company to introduce an FP gains the most benefit, especially if competitors are slow to respond. After competitors respond, FPs can become a financial burden to all the offering companies, but some companies are more efficient and creative in managing an FI. For example, airlines are running tiered loyalty programs in which they offer different levels of rewards to different travelers. They may after one frequent-flier mile for every mile flown to occasional travelers and two frequent-flier miles for every mile flown to top customers.
Many companies have created club membership programs to bond customers closer to the company. Club membership can be open to everyone who purchases a product or service, or it can be limited to an affinity group or to those willing to pay a small fee. Although open clubs are good for building a database or snagging customers from competitors, limited membership clubs are more powerful long-term loyalty builders. Fees and membership conditions prevent those with only a fleeting interest in a company’s products from joining. These clubs attract and keep those customers who are responsible for the largest portion of business.
ADDING SOCIAL BENEFITS Company personnel work on increasing social bonds with customers by individualizing and personalizing customer relationships. In essence, thoughtful companies turn their customers into clients.
ADDING STRUCTURAL TIES the company may supply customers with special equipment or computer linkages that help customers manage orders, payroll, and inventory. A good example is McKesson Corporation, a leading pharmaceutical wholesaler, which invested million of dollars in EDI capabilities to help independent pharmacies manage inventory, order-entry processes, and shelf space. Another example is Milliken & Company, which provides proprietary software programs, marketing research, sales training, and sales leads to loyal customers.
Ultimately, marketing is the art of attracting and keeping profitable customers. According to James V. Putten of American Express, the best customers outspend others by ratios of 16 to 1 in retailing, 13 to 1 in the restaurant business, 12 to 1 in the airline business, and 5 to 1 in the hotel and motel industry. Yet every company loses money on some of its customers. The well-known 20-80 rule says that the top 20 percent of the customers may generate as much as 80 percent of the company's profits.
Furthermore, it is not necessarily the company's largest customers who yield the most profit. The largest customers demand considerable service and receive the deepest discounts. The smallest customers pay full price and receive minimal service, but the costs of transacting with small customers reduce their profitability. The midsize customers receive good service and pay nearly full price and are often the most profitable. This fact helps explain why many large firms are now invading the middle market. Major air express carriers, for instance, are finding that it does not pay to ignore small and midsize international shippers. Programs geared toward smaller customers provide a network of drop boxes, which allow for substantial discounts over letters and packages picked up at the shipper's place of business, in addition, United Parcel Service (UPS) conducts seminars to instruct exporters in the finer points of shipping overseas.
What makes a customer profitable? A profitable customer is a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company's cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer. Note that the emphasis is on tile lifetime stream of revenue and cost, not on the profit from a particular transaction.
Customer profitability analysis (CPA) is best conducted with the tools of an accounting technique called Activity-Based Costing (ABC). The company estimates all revenue coming from the customer, less all costs. The costs should include not only the cost of making and distributing the products and services, but also such costs as taking phone calls from the customer, traveling to visit the customer, entertainment and gifts--all the company's resources that went into serving that customer. When this is done for each customer, it is possible to classify customers into different profit tiers: platinum customers (most profitable), gold customers (profitable), iron customers (low profitability but desirable), and lead customers (unprofitable and undesirable).
The company's job is to move iron customers into the gold tier and gold customers into the platinum tier, while dropping the lead customers or making them profitable by raising their prices or lowering the cost of serving them. The company's marketing investment ought to be higher in the higher profit tiers.
◆ Increasing company profitability
Companies must not only be able to create high absolute value, but also high value relative to competitors at a sufficiently low cost. Competitive advantage is a company's ability to perform in one or more ways that competitors cannot or will not match.
◆ Implementing total quality management
One of the major values customers expect from vendors is high product and service quality. Most will no longer accept or tolerate average quality. If companies want to stay in tile race, let alone be profitable, they have no choice but to adopt total quality management (TQM). Total quality management (TQM) is an organization wide approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization's processes, products, and services.
1．市場行銷學作為一門獨立的經營管理學科誕生于20世紀初的（ ） 。
4．行銷理論的基礎是（ ） 和價值實現論。
A．產品 B．定價 C．促銷 D．消費者
A．生產 B．產品 C．市場行銷 D生態行銷．
A．增加產量 B．擴大銷售 C.顧客需求 D．消費者和社會長遠利益
A．推銷觀念 B．市場行銷觀念 C．生態行銷觀念 D．大市場行銷觀念
C. 密爾頓·科特勒 D. 巴特勒
20. 社會行銷觀念強調社會利益、消費者利益和（ ）利益的協調一致。
A. 人民 B. 銀行
C. 公眾 D. 企業和職工
1．按照美國學者基恩·凱洛斯的看法，人們對市場行銷的各種定義，大致可劃分為以下幾類( ) 。
2. 從行銷的角度看待市場，市場是由（ ）有機組成的總和。
A. 供求 B. 人口 C. 場所 D. 購買力 E. 購買欲望
4. 按照管理大師彼德. 杜魯克的說法，企業的基本職能是( )。
A．生產 B. 組織 C．市場行銷 D．創新 E．控制
5. 企業未能全面貫徹市場行銷職能的原因主要有( )。
A. 人生產市場需要的使用價值 B．產品的生產與不斷變化的市場需要相適應
A．產品 B．定價 C．管道 D．銷售管理 E．銷售促進
A．產品 B．定價 C．權力 D．公共關係 E．銷售促進
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