The Porter five-force model波特五力模型

2022-08-28 16:36:40   --   来源:中国经济管理大学|中國經濟管理大學   --   浏览:36
内容提要:中国经济管理大学The Porter five-force model波特五力模型

中国经济管理大学

The Porter five-force model

波特五力模型

 

什么是波特五力分析模型What is a Porter five-force analysis model


  波特五力分析模型是迈克尔·波特(Michael Porter)于20世纪80年代初提出,对企业战略制定产生全球性的深远影响。用于竞争战略的分析,可以有效的分析客户的竞争环境。
The Porter Five Force Analysis Model was proposed by Michael Porter in the early 1980 s and has a global profound impact on corporate strategy making. The analysis of competitive strategy can effectively analyze the customer competitive environment.
  根据波特的观点,一个行业中的竞争,不止是在原有竞争对手中进行,而是存在着五种基本的竞争力量,这五种基本竞争力量的状况及综合强度,决定着行业的竞争激烈程度,从而决定着行业中最终的获利潜力以及资本向本行业的流向程度,这一切最终决定着企业保持高收益的能力。五力分别是: 供应商的议价能力、购买者的议价能力、潜在竞争者进入的能力、替代品的替代能力、行业内竞争者现在的竞争能力。五种力量的不同组合变化,最终影响行业利润潜力变化。
According to Porter's view, competition in an industry is not only in the original competitors, but there are five basic competitive forces, the status of the five basic competitive forces and comprehensive strength, determines the competition intensity of the industry, thus determines the final profit potential in the industry and the flow of capital to the industry, all this ultimately determines the ability to maintain high profitability. The five forces are: the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, the ability of potential competitors to enter, the substitution power of substitutes, and the current competitiveness of competitors in the industry. Changes in different combinations of the five forces ultimately affect the change in industry profit potential.
  波特五力分析属于外部环境分析中的微观环境分析,主要用来分析本行业的企业竞争格局以及本行业与其他行业之间的关系。本质上是一种管理思想在企业营销管理实践活动中战略层面的应用工具,要求我们的企业市场营销管理者从战略分析的角度来管理企业。强调的是一种战略意识,或者说战略性思维的运用。
Porter five-force analysis belongs to the micro environmental analysis in the external environmental analysis, mainly used to analyze the enterprise competition pattern of the industry and the relationship between the industry and other industries. It is essentially an application tool of management thought in the strategic level of enterprise marketing management practice activities, which requires our enterprise marketing managers to manage the enterprise from the perspective of strategic analysis. Emphasis is a kind of strategic consciousness, or the use of strategic thinking.
  波特五力分析模型详解The Porter five-force analysis model is solved in detail
  波特五力分析模型将大量不同的因素汇集在一个简便的模型中,以此分析一个行业的基本竞争态势。五种力量模型确定了竞争的五种主要来源,即供应商的议价能力,购买者的议价能力,潜在进入者的威胁,替代品的威胁,以及来自目前在同一行业的公司间的竞争。这五大竞争力量,决定了行业的盈利能力,并指出企业战略的核心,应在于选择正确的行业以及行业中最具有吸引力的竞争位置。
The special five-force analysis model gathers a large number of different factors in a simple model to analyze the basic competition situation of an industry. The five power models identify five major sources of competition, namely the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, the threat of potential entrants, the threat of alternatives, and competition from companies currently in the same industry. These five competitive forces determine the profitability of the industry, and indicate that the core of the enterprise strategy should be in choosing the right industry and the most attractive competitive position in the industry.
  一种可行战略的提出首先应该包括确认并评价这五种力量,不同力量的特性和重要性因行业和公司的不同而变化,如下图所示:
The proposal of a feasible strategy should first include identifying and evaluating these five forces, and the characteristics and importance of the different forces vary by industry and company, as shown in the following figure:
   
①供应商的议价能力(Bargaining Power of Suppliers)
  供方主要通过其提高投入要素价格与降低单位价值质量的能力,来影响行业中现有企业的盈利能力与产品竞争力。供方力量的强弱主要取决于他们所提供给买主的是什么投入要素,当供方所提供的投入要素其价值构成了买主产品总成本的较大比例、对买主产品生产过程非常重要、或者严重影响买主产品的质量时,供方对于买主的潜在讨价还价力量就大大增强。一般来说,满足如下条件的供方集团会具有比较强大的讨价还价力量:
The supplier mainly affects the profitability and product competitiveness of the industry through its ability to improve the price of the input elements and reduce the value quality of the existing enterprises in the unit. The strength of the supplier mainly depends on what input elements they provide to the buyer. When the input elements provided by the supplier constitute the value of a large proportion of the total cost of the buyer, very important to the production process of the buyer, or seriously affects the quality of the buyer, the supplier's potential bargaining power for the buyer is greatly enhanced. In speaking, the supplier group that meets the following conditions will have a strong bargaining force:
-供方行业为一些具有比较稳固市场地位而不受市场剧烈竞争困扰的企业所控制,其产品的买主很多,以致于每一单个买主都不可能成为供方的重要客户。
-The supplier industry is controlled by some enterprises with relatively firm market position not suffering from plagued by fierce competition in the market, with many buyers of their products, so that it is impossible for every individual buyer to become an important customer of the supplier.-The supplier industry is controlled by some enterprises with relatively firm market position not suffering from plagued by fierce competition in the market, with many buyers of their products, so that it is impossible for every individual buyer to become an important customer of the supplier.
-供方各企业的产品各具有一定特色,以致于买主难以转换或转换成本太高,或者很难找到可与供方企业产品相竞争的替代品。
-The products of the supplier enterprises have certain characteristics, so that it is difficult to convert or cost too high, or difficult to find alternatives that can compete with the supplier's enterprise products.
-供方能够方便地实行前向联合或一体化(产业链纵向延伸的能力),而买主难以进行后向联合或一体化。
-The supplier can easily implement forward union or integration (the ability to vertically extend the industrial chain), while it is difficult for buyers to combine backward or integrate.
②购买者的议价能力(Bargaining Power of Buyers)
  购买者主要通过压价与要求提供较高的产品或服务质量的能力,来影响行业中现有企业的盈利能力。一般来说,满足如下条件的购买者可能具有较强的讨价还价力量:
Buyers mainly affect the profitability of existing businesses in the industry mainly by pressing prices and requiring the ability to provide higher quality of products or services. Generally, buyers who meet the following conditions may have a strong bargaining force:
- 购买者所购产品占企业产品销量的总体比重过大,无形中增加了其在商务谈判时讨价还价的话语权。客户是上帝,起决定作用的大客户就是上帝的上帝。
-The products purchased by buyers account for too large proportion of the overall sales of enterprises's products, which virtually increases their right to bargain in business negotiations. The client is God, and the big client who decides is the God of God.
- 卖方行业由大量相对来说规模较小的企业所组成。
-The seller's industry consists of a large number of relatively smaller businesses.
- 购买者所购买的基本上是一种标准化产品,同时向多个卖主购买产品在经济上也完全可行。
-What the buyer buys is basically a standardized product, and it is economically feasible to buy from multiple vendors.
- 购买者有能力实现后向一体化,而卖主不可能前向一体化。比如一家奶粉厂可以比较容易去实现收购牧场,而牧场不容易开一家乳品企业。
-The purchaser has the ability to achieve backward integration, which the seller cannot integrate forward. For example, a milk powder factory can be easier to acquire pasture, and the pasture is not easy to open a dairy enterprise.
③新进入者的威胁(Threat of New Entrants)
  新进入者在给行业带来新生产能力、新资源的同时,而市场已被行业内现有企业瓜分一空,新企业要获得一席之地,这就有可能会与现有企业发生原材料与市场份额的竞争,最终导致行业中现有企业盈利水平降低,严重的话还有可能危及这些企业的生存。新进入企业的威胁由两方面原因决定:
New entrants in the industry to bring new production capacity, new resources at the same time, and the market has been divided into the industry, new enterprises to get a place, this may occur with the existing enterprises raw materials and market share competition, eventually lead to the existing enterprise profitability in the industry, serious and may endanger the survival of these enterprises. The threat of new entry companies is determined by two reasons:
-现有企业对新进入者的反应。预期现有企业对进入者的反应情况,主要是采取报复行动的可能性大小,则取决于有关厂商的财力情况、报复记录、固定资产规模、行业增长速度等。总之,新企业进入一个行业的可能性大小,取决于进入者主观估计进入所能带来的潜在利益、所需花费的代价与所要承担的风险这三者的相对大小情况。
-Response of existing businesses to new entrants. It is expected that the response of the existing enterprises to the entrants is mainly the possibility of revenge action, which depends on the financial situation, revenge record, scale of fixed assets and industry growth rate of the relevant manufacturers. In short, the possibility of a new enterprise to enter an industry depends on the relative size of the entrants to subjectively estimate the potential benefits, the cost, and the risk to bear.
-新企业进入新领域障碍大小与预期收益。进入壁垒主要包括规模经济、产品差异、资本需要、转换成本、销售渠道开拓、政府行为与政策(如国家综合平衡统一建设的石化企业)、不受规模支配的成本劣势(如商业秘密、产供销关系、学习与经验曲线效应等)、自然资源(如冶金业对矿产的拥有)、地理环境(如造船厂只能建在海滨城市)等方面,这其中有些障碍是很难借助复制或仿造的方式来突破的。
-New businesses enter new domain barriers to size and expected gains. The barriers to entry mainly include economy of scale, product differences, capital needs, conversion costs, sales channel development, government behavior and policies (such as petrochemical enterprises), uncontrolled scale cost disadvantages (such as trade secrets, production and marketing relations, learning and experience curve effects, etc.), natural resources (such as metallurgy ownership of minerals), geographical environment (such as shipyards can only be built in coastal cities), some of which are difficult to be overcome through replication or imitation.
  进入的威胁取决于市场中进入壁垒存在的程度。进入壁垒是那些想成功进行竞争的新进入者所必需克服的障碍。进入壁垒通常会延缓潜在进入者进入市场的时机,但不会构成永久的障碍,另外,进入壁垒可能会阻止很多潜在的进入者,但不是全部。
The threat of entry depends on the extent to which barriers to entry exist in the market. Barriers to entry are barriers necessary to overcome by new entrants who want to compete successfully. Barriers to entry usually delay potential entrants to the market, but do not constitute permanent barriers, and barriers may prevent a lot of potential entrants, but not all.
④替代品的威胁 (Substitutes)
  经营企业不仅仅是在与我们通常意义上的竞争对手在竞争,还有其他的若干方面,如猪肉生厂商的竞争对手不仅仅来自于其他的猪肉生厂商,还有牛羊肉生厂商等等,这些牛羊肉叫作猪肉的替代品。替代品具有与现有产品或劳务相似的性能,能够满足客户相同的需要。两个处于同行业或不同行业中的企业,可能会由于所生产的产品是互为替代品,从而在它们之间产生相互竞争行为。替代品的威胁体现在:
The business is not only competing with our competitors in the usual sense, but there are several other aspects, such as pork manufacturers ' competitors not only from other pork manufacturers, but also beef and mutton manufacturers, these beef and mutton are called substitutes for pork. The ements have similar performance to existing products or services to meet the same needs. Two companies in the same or different industries may have competitive behavior between them because the products produced are mutual substitutes. The threat of alternatives is in:
-现有企业产品售价以及获利潜力的提高,将由于存在着能被用户方便接受的替代品而受到限制;
-The increase in product prices and profit potential of existing enterprises will be limited by the existence of alternatives that are readily acceptable to users;
-由于替代品生产者的侵入,使得现有企业必须提高产品质量、或者通过降低成本来降低售价、或者使其产品具有特色,否则其销量与利润增长的目标就有可能受挫;
-Due to the intrusion of substitute producers, existing enterprises have to improve product quality, or reduce selling prices or make them characteristic of their products, otherwise their goal of sales and profit growth may be frustrated;
- 源自替代品生产者的竞争强度,受产品买主转换成本高低的影响。
-The competitive strength of alternative producers, affected by the conversion cost of product buyers.
  几乎任何产品都有自己的替代产品,只不过替代的程度不同而已,这些替代品也最大限度的保证着任何垄断行业都不可能把产品的价格无限扩大。如牛羊肉互相替代。网络电话、邮电都是电信的替代品,煤炭与石油也是高度替代品,这些替代品的存在也限制着这些垄断产品价格的提升。在替代品中最需要注意的是新技术和新产品的产生对原有需求的替代,有可能是原有的需求基本绝迹。如数码相机的产生,使胶片相片的市场需求消失。替代品价格越低、质量越好、用户转换成本越低,其所能产生的竞争压力就强;而这种来自替代品生产者的竞争压力的强度,可以具体通过考察替代品销售增长率、替代品厂家生产能力与盈利扩张情况来加以描述。
Almost any product has its own alternative products, but the degree of substitution is different, these alternatives also maximize to ensure that any monopoly industry can not infinitely expand the price of the product. Such as beef and mutton to replace each other. Internet telephone, mail and telecommunications are all alternatives to telecommunications, and coal and oil are also high alternatives, and the existence of these alternatives also restricts the increase in the prices of these monopoly products. The most important thing to be noted in the replacement is the replacement of new technologies and the generation of new products to the original demand, which may be that the original demand is basically disappeared. Such as, the generation of digital cameras, so the market demand for film photos disappeared. The lower the substitute price, the better the quality, and the lower the user conversion cost, the stronger competitive pressure; the strength of this competitive pressure from substitute producers can be described by examining the sales growth rate, production capacity and profitability of substitutes.
⑤同业竞争者的竞争程度(Rivalry)
  大部分行业中的企业,相互之间的利益都是紧密联系在一起的,作为企业整体战略一部分的各企业竞争战略,其目标都在于使得自己的企业获得相对于竞争对手的优势,所以,在实施中就必然会产生冲突与对抗现象,这些冲突与对抗就构成了现有企业之间的竞争。现有企业之间的竞争常常表现在价格、广告、产品介绍、售后服务等方面,其竞争强度与许多因素有关。
Most enterprises in the industry, the interests of each other are closely linked, as part of the overall strategy of enterprise competition strategy, its goal is to make their own enterprises to gain the advantage of the competitors, so, in the implementation will inevitably produce conflict and confrontation phenomenon, these conflict and confrontation constitute the competition between existing enterprises. Competition between existing enterprises is often manifested in price, advertising, product introduction, after-sales service, etc., and its competition strength is related to many factors.
  一般来说,出现下述情况将意味着行业中现有企业之间竞争的加剧,有四种情形:
In general, the following situations will mean increased competition among existing companies in the industry, in four situations:
-行业进入障碍较低,势均力敌竞争对手较多,竞争参与者范围广泛;行业内企业由于面临的同行业企业太多,而无法针对竞争对手实施市场营销策略,变为各自为战。
-Low barriers to entry, more close competitors and a wide range of competitors; enterprises in the industry are unable to market marketing strategies for competitors.
-市场趋于成熟,产品需求增长缓慢,企业间的市场竞争技术含量较低,而竞争的手段也较为单一,只能通过降低产品价格或提高营销预算做广告等促进销售的方式。
-The market tends to mature, the product demand is growing slowly, the market competition among enterprises is low, and the means of competition is relatively single, which can only be promoted by reducing product prices or improving the marketing budget for advertising.
-竞争者提供几乎相同的产品或服务,用户转换成本很低;
-Competitors offer almost the same product or service, with a low cost of user conversion;
- 在巨大的竞争压力下有时候企业决策层不得不采用“赌博”的方式参与市场竞争。一个战略行动如果取得成功,其收入相当可观;但一次战略决策的 错误可能让企业永不翻身。企业的经营决策迫于市场压力面临巨大风险。
-Under the huge competitive pressure, sometimes corporate decision makers have to "gamble" to participate in market competition. A strategic action earns considerable revenue for success; but a false strategic decision may never turn over. Business decisions of enterprises face huge risks due to market pressure.
-行业外部实力强大的公司在接收了行业中实力薄弱企业后,发起进攻性行动,结果使得刚被接收的企业成为市场的主要竞争者;
-The strong companies outside the industry launched offensive actions after receiving the weak enterprises in the industry, which made the newly received enterprises the main contenders in the market;
- 退出障碍较高,即退出竞争要比继续参与竞争代价更高。在这里,退出障碍主要受经济、战略、感情以及社会政治关系等方面考虑的影响,具体包括:资产的专用性、退出的固定费用、战略上的相互牵制、情绪上的难以接受、政府和社会的各种限制等。
-Exit barriers are high, where exit competition is more costly than continuing in competition. Here, the obstacles to exit are mainly affected by economic, strategic, emotional and social and political relations, including the specificity of assets, the fixed cost of exit, strategic mutual containment, emotional unacceptance, various restrictions of the government and society, etc.
  行业中的每一个企业或多或少都必须应付以上各种力量构成的威胁,除非认为正面交锋有必要而且有益处,否则企业可以通过设置进入壁垒,包括差异化和转换成本来保护自己。 当一个企业确定了其优势和劣势时(参见SWOT分析),企业必须进行定位,以便因势利导,而不是被预料到的环境因素变化所损害,如产品生命周期、行业增长速度等等,然后保护自己并做好准备,以有效地对其它企业的举动做出反应。
Every business in the industry must more or less address the threats of these forces unless head-to-head is necessary and beneficial to protect itself by setting barriers to entry including differentiation and conversion into nature. When a business identifies its strengths and weaknesses (see SWOT analysis), it must position to direct the situation, not impaired by anticipated environmental changes such as product life cycle, industry growth, and then protect itself and prepare to respond effectively to other actions.
  根据上面对于五种竞争力量的讨论,企业可以采取尽可能地将自身的经营与竞争力量隔绝开来、努力从自身利益需要出发影响行业竞争规则、先占领有利的市场地位再发起进攻性竞争行动等手段来对付这五种竞争力量,以增强自己的市场地位与竞争实力。
According to the above discussion for five kinds of competitive forces, enterprises can take as far as possible their own operation from competitive forces, efforts to start from their own interests to affect industry competition rules, occupy favorable market position before launching offensive competition action to deal with the five competitive forces, in order to enhance their market position and competitive strength.
   波特五力分析模型的意义The significance of the Potter five-force analysis model
  在运用波特五力分析模型时,我们主要通过对企业或行业的五种竞争力量进行分析,可以帮助我们了解这个企业或这个行业所面临的威胁以及可能获得的利润,比如如果一个企业上游的供应商和下游的购买者讨价还价能力都较强,则可以预见,该企业会生存的很累,甚至很难维持下去,如中国许多服装代工工厂,上游是强大的布料生产厂,而下游则是强大的品牌服装商,这些代工厂几乎生存在这两者的夹缝当中,获利甚微;反之,如果一个企业上游的供应商和下游的购买者讨价还价能力都较弱的时候,该企业则会活的比较滋润,如有实力的大超市、家电卖场,由于他们拥有众多的消费者,所以对上游的厂家提出种种不合理的要求,如进店费、店庆费等等,而由于他们的消费者又属于分散的个体,基本上没有讨价还价的能力,所以他们对上游和下游的力量都比较强势。
When using the Porter five-force analysis model, We mainly through analysis of five competitive forces in the business or industry, Can help us understand the threats to the business or the industry and the possible profits, For example, if an enterprise upstream suppliers and downstream buyers have a strong bargaining ability, It is foreseeable that, The business will survive very tired, It is even difficult to sustain it, Like many garment OEM factories in China, Upstream are powerful fabric manufacturers, but downstream are strong brand clothing makers, These subplants almost survive in the crevice between the two, Little profit. Conversely, If a business upstream suppliers and downstream buyers have weak bargaining power, The company will live more moist, Such as the powerful big supermarkets, home appliance stores, Because they have the numerous consumers, Therefore, we put forward various unreasonable requirements for the upstream manufacturers, Such as store entry fee, store celebration fee and so on, And as their consumers again belong to scattered individuals, Basically no bargaining power, So they are relatively strong at both the upstream and downstream forces.

 


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