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Employee Safety And Health

Employee Safety And Health

 



ANNOTATED OUTLINE


I. Why Safety is Important


Safety and accident prevention concern managers for several reasons, one of which is the staggering number of workplace accidents.


A. Management’s Role – Reducing accidents often boils down to reducing accident-causing conditions and accident-causing acts.  Most safety experts would agree that safety should start at the top.


B.   What Top Management Can Do – The employer should institutionalize top                                   management’s commitment with a safety policy and promote it.


C.  The Supervisor’s Role in Safety – Safety inspections should always be part of the supervisor’s daily routine.


II. Occupational Safety Law


The Occupational Safety and Health Act was passed in 1970 to preserve the nation’s human resources by assuring as much as possible that every worker has safe and healthy working conditions.  The Occupational Safety and Health Administration  (OSHA) (within the Department of Labor, which enforces the standards) administers the act, sets and enforces the safety and health standards, and has inspectors working out of branch offices throughout the country to ensure compliance. 


A. OSHA Standards and Record Keeping


1. Figure 16-1 provides an example of OSHA Standards. 


2. Under OSHA, employers with 11 or more employees must maintain records of, and report occupational injuries and occupational illnesses, which is any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.  Figure 16-2 shows what accidents must be reported under OSHA.


B. Inspections and Citations – are how OSHA enforces its standards. The agency has limited funds so it tries to encourage cooperative safety programs as well.


1. Inspection Priorities – Inspections in order of priority are:  1) imminent danger situations; 2) catastrophes, fatalities, and accidents that have already occurred  (employers must report within 48 hours); 3) valid employee complaints of alleged violation of standards; 4) periodic special-emphasis inspections aimed at high-hazard industries, occupations, or substances; and 5) random inspections and re-inspections.  OSHA conducts an inspection within 24 hours for immediate danger complaints, and within 3 working days when a serious hazard exists.  OSHA responds within 20 working days for a non-serious complaint filed in writing by a worker or union.


2. The Inspection – An authorized employee representative can accompany the officer during the inspection, during which time the inspector can question workers about safety and health conditions.  The inspector holds a closing conference with the employer’s representatives to discuss apparent violations for which OSHA may issue or recommend a citation and penalty.  The area director determines what citations, if any, to issue, which inform the employer and employees of the regulations and standards that the employer violated.  The employer must post these citations at or near the place where the violation occurred.


3. Penalties – OSHA can impose penalties ranging from $5,000 up to $70,000 for willful or repeated serious violations, although in practice the penalties can be far higher.  


4. Inspection Guidelines – fall into three categories: initial contact, opening conference, and walk-around inspection.


C. Responsibilities and Rights of Employers and Employees – Employers are responsible for providing a hazard-free workplace, being familiar with mandatory OSHA standards, and examining workplace conditions to make sure they conform to applicable standards.  Employers have the right to: seek advice and off-site consultation from OSHA, request and receive proper identification of the OSHA compliance officer before inspection, and be advised by the compliance officer of the reason for an inspection.  OSHA can’t cite employees for violations of their responsibilities.  Employees are responsible for complying with all applicable OSHA standards, for following all employer safety and health rules and regulations, and for reporting hazardous conditions to the supervisor.  Employees have a right to demand safety and health on the job without fear of punishment.  The act forbids employers from punishing or discriminating against workers who complain to OSHA about job safety and health hazards.


1. Dealing with Employee Resistance – In most cases, the employer remains liable for any penalties associated with employees’ noncompliance with OSHA standards.  It is possible for employers to reduce their liability.


2. Staying Out of Trouble with OSHA – This segment contains a list of the top 10 ways to incur OSHA’s wrath.


When You’re on Your Own, HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs:  Free On-Site Safety and Health Services for Small Businesses – Discusses how OSHA helped Jan Anderson, president of a Colorado steel installation company, and a group of similar Colorado firms, draft new safety systems, create educational materials, and provide inspections that were more cooperative than adversarial, which have significantly decreased their workers’ compensation costs.


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NOTES Educational Materials to Use





III. What Causes Accidents?


A. Unsafe Conditions and Other Work-Related Factors – Unsafe conditions are one main cause of accidents.  Three Other Work-Related Accident Factors: the job itself, the work schedule, and the psychological climate of the workplace.


B.  What Causes Unsafe Acts (A Second Basic Cause of Accidents) – Unfortunately, there are no easy answers to the question of what causes them.  The consensus is that accident proneness is situational. Some accident repeaters are just unlucky, or may be more meticulous about reporting. Certain traits have been identified with accident prone-ness.


When You’re on Your Own, HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs:  The Supervisor’s Role in Safety – Discusses how to make safety part of a department’s daily routine.


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NOTES Educational Materials to Use





IV. How to Prevent Accidents


A. Reducing Unsafe Conditions – is always an employer’s first line of defense.  Safety Engineers should design jobs to remove hazards; additionally, supervisors and managers should help identify and remove potential hazards.


The New Workforce:  Protecting Vulnerable Workers – Employers need to pay special attention to vulnerable workers when designing safe environments. These include young workers, immigrant workers, aging workers, and women.


B. Reducing Unsafe Acts by Emphasizing Safety – It’s the supervisor’s responsibility to set the tone so subordinates want to work safely.


C.  Reducing Unsafe Acts Through Selection and Placement – Screening is another way to reduce unsafe acts.  The basic aim is to isolate the trait that might predict accidents on the job in question, and then screen candidates for this trait.  Studies suggest that the Employee Reliability Inventory (ERI), which measures emotional maturity, conscientiousness, safe job performance, and courteous job performance, can help employers reduce unsafe acts at work.  The ADA has particular relevance for safety-related screening decisions.


D. Reducing Unsafe Acts Through Training – is especially appropriate for new employees.  OSHA has published two booklets: Training Requirements Under OSHA and Teaching Safety and Health in the Workplace.


The New Workforce:  Protecting Vulnerable Workers – Bilingual safety training is important.  With increasing numbers of Hispanic workers in the United States, sometimes in hazardous jobs, experts are expressing concern about the level of safety training they’re receiving.  It would hardly be useful to provide safety training in English to someone with modest English comprehension, and believe that you’ve accomplished your training aims.  The program should address cultural differences.


E. Reducing Unsafe Acts Through Motivation: Posters, Incentive Programs, and Positive Reinforcement – have been successful at reducing workplace injuries.


1. Research Insight: Positive Reinforcement – Many employers stress positive reinforcement to improve safety.  This segment discusses the experience of a wholesale bakery. The firm set and communicated a reasonable goal; trained the employees; then posted a graph with their pre-training safety record plotted and a list of safety rules.  Observers walked through collecting safety data to provide workers with feedback on their safety performance as a form of positive reinforcement.


F. Use Behavior-Based Safety – which involves identifying the worker behaviors that contribute to accidents and then training workers to avoid these behaviors.


G. Use Employee Participation – There are at least two reasons to get the employees involved in designing the safety program.  First, those actually doing the jobs are often management’s best source of ideas about what the potential problems are and how to solve them. Second, it is generally easier to get employees to accept and enthusiastically follow the safety program when they’ve had a hand in designing it.


H. Conduct Safety and Health Audits and Inspections – on all premises for possible safety and health problems, using checklists as aids.  All accidents and near misses should be investigated.  A system should be in place for employees to notify management about hazardous conditions.


I. Research Insight: High Performance Systems and Safety – This study found that high performance work systems, in addition to being associated with superior organizational performance, profitability, and customer service, produce fewer work injuries.


J.  Controlling Worker's Compensation Costs can affect what a firm pays in worker compensation insurance premiums.


     1. Before the Accident – Costs can be controlled before the accident by removing unsafe conditions discussed above.


     2. After the Accident – Employers should provide first aid, and make sure the worker gets quick medical attention; document the accident; file required accident reports; and encourage a speedy return to work.


     3. Analyzing Claims – Claims-tracking software can help employers understand what’s driving their workers’ compensation claims. 


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NOTES Educational Materials to Use




Vl. Workplace Health Hazards:  Problems and Remedies


A. The Basic Industrial Hygiene Program – First, the facility’s health and safety officers must recognize possible exposure hazards.  The evaluation phase involves determining how severe the hazard is.  Finally, the hazard control phase involves taking steps to eliminate or reduce the hazard so that it no longer ranks as dangerous.


B. Asbestos Exposure at Work – There are four major sources of occupational respiratory diseases: asbestos, silica, lead, and carbon dioxide. Of these, asbestos has become a major concern.


C. Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Internet-based Safety Improvement Solutions – Managing the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) is an expensive and time-consuming task. Putting such programs on line can save time and money. Web-based safety training programs enable an employer to quickly launch a health and safety program for employees.


Teaching Tip: Do an Internet search using “Correction fluid MSDS” and print out or display an actual MSDS. Students may not realize that even very common chemicals are documented. Note the precautions for ingestion. 


D. Infectious Diseases:  The Case of SARS – With many employees traveling to and from international destinations, monitoring and controlling infectious diseases like Ebola and SARS has become an important safety issue.  Obviously, employers must make provisions for ensuring that a returning employee does not inadvertently infect one or more colleagues.  Employers can take a number of steps to prevent the entry or spread of infectious diseases like SARS into their workplaces.


E.  Alcoholism and Substance Abuse – are serious and widespread problems at work because they usually lead to declines in the quality and quantity of work.


1. Dealing With Substance Abuse – Various techniques can be used to deal with these problems, which start with testing, and include: disciplining, discharge, in-house counseling, and referral to an outside agency.


.Know Your Employment Law: Workplace Substance Abuse – The federal Drug-Free Workplace Act requires employers with federal government contracts or grants to ensure a drug-free workplace by taking and certifying that they have taken a number of steps.  Dealing with alcoholism and drugs at work entails legal risks because employees have sued for invasion of privacy, wrongful discharge, defamation, and illegal searches.


F. Stress, Burnout, and Depression – can sometimes lead to problems such as alcoholism and drug abuse, which are problematic for the employee and employer.  A variety of external environmental factors can lead to job stress.  Personal factors also influence stress – no two people react to the same job in the very same way.  Human consequences of stress include anxiety, depression, anger, and various physical consequences.  Organizational consequences include reductions in the quantity and quality of job performance, increased absenteeism and turnover, increased grievances, and increased health care costs.  Stress is not necessarily dysfunctional; it can lead some people to be more productive and/or creative.


1. Reducing Job Stress – can range from getting more sleep and eating better to negotiating with your boss for realistic deadlines on important projects to reducing the amount of trivia to which you give your attention.  The three-step stress-reduction technique involves: developing awareness; adjusting attitudes; and taking action. The HR department can take a positive role in reducing stress.


2. Burnout is the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal. Some suggestions for alleviating burnout include: breaking your patterns; getting away from it all periodically; reassessing your goals in terms of their intrinsic worth; and thinking about your work.


3. Research Insight – One study found that burnout can be reduced by removing the stressors that caused it in the first place, but without other changes, the burnout will quickly return once the vacation is over.


G. Computer-Related Health Problems – Short-term eye problems (like burning, itching, tearing, eyestrain, and eye soreness), backaches, and neck-aches are common complaints among video display operators.  The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has several recommendations for reducing these problems.


H. Workplace Smoking – The Nature of the Problem is serious for employees and employers. Smokers have significantly greater risk of occupational accidents and higher absenteeism rates than nonsmokers.  They increase the cost of health and fire insurance.


1. What You Can and Cannot Do – It depends on the state in which you are located, whether or not your firm is unionized, and the details of the situation. A Michigan firm gave employees warning, offered smoking cessation programs, and then fired those who still smoked, even in the privacy of their own homes.


I.  Violence at Work – Violence against employees has become an enormous problem at work, including homicide and robbery.  


1. Heightened Security Measures – include: improve external lighting; use drop safes to minimize cash on hand, and post signs noting that only a limited amount of cash is on hand; install silent alarms and surveillance cameras; increase the number of staff on duty; provide staff training in conflict resolution and nonviolent response; close establishments during high-risk hours late at night and early in the morning; and issue weapons policy.


2. Improved Employee Screening – of potentially explosive employees and applicants by instituting a rigorous pre-employment investigation is a line of defense.


3. Workplace Violence Training – should supplement enhanced security and screening.


4. Organizational Justice – A related step is to create a workplace culture emphasizing mutual respect, justice, and civility. Of course, this is easier said than done.  In general, management should emphasize by word and deed that it believes deeply in and demands civility.


5. Enhanced Attention to Employee Retention/Dismissal – to reduce the potential liability of retaining employees who subsequently commit violent acts.


6. Dismissing Violent Employees – Use caution when firing or disciplining potentially violent employees.  Analyze and anticipate their behavior.  Have a security guard or a violence expert present when the dismissal takes place.


7. Dealing with Angry Employees – includes: making eye contact; stopping what you are doing and giving your full attention; speaking in a calm voice and creating a relaxed environment; being open and honest; letting the person have his/her say; asking for specific examples of what the person is upset about; being careful to define the problem; asking open-ended questions and exploring all sides of the issue; and listening.


8. Legal Constraints on Reducing Workplace Violence – Most states have policies that encourage the employment and rehabilitation of ex-offenders, thus limiting the use of criminal records in hiring decisions.

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NOTES Educational Materials to Use





VIl. Occupational Security and Safety


A. Basic Prerequisites for a Security Plan – Ideally, a comprehensive corporate security program should start with the following prerequisites:


1. Company philosophy and policy on crime—In particular, make sure employees understand that no crime is acceptable and that the employer has a zero tolerance policy with respect to workers who commit crimes.


2. Investigations of job applicants—Make sure to conduct a full background check as part of your selection process for every position.


3. Security awareness training—Make it clear, during training and orientation programs, that the employer takes a tough approach to workplace crime.


4. Crisis management—Establish and communicate the procedures employees should follow in the event of a terrorist threat, bomb threat, fire, or other emergency.


B. Setting Up a Basic Security Plan – In simplest terms, instituting a basic security program requires four steps: analyzing the current level of risk, and then installing mechanical, natural, and organizational security systems.


C. Evacuation Plans – Evacuation plans should contain several elements. These include early detection of a problem, methods for communicating the emergency externally, and communications plans for initiating an evacuation and for providing information to those the employer wants to evacuate.


D. Security for Other Sources of Property Loss – Evacuation plans should contain several elements. These include early detection of a problem, methods for communicating the emergency externally, and communications plans for initiating an evacuation, and for providing information to those the employer wants to evacuate.


E. Company Security and Employee Privacy – Employers must consider employee privacy when using monitoring to investigate possible employee security breaches.  


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NOTES Educational Materials to Use




DISCUSSION QUESTIONS


1. Explain how to reduce the occurrence of unsafe acts on the part of your employees.  The text lists 10 different ways to help reduce unsafe acts.  Answers should reflect at least a majority of these.


2. Discuss the basic facts about OSHA – its purpose, standards, inspection, and rights and responsibilities.  The purpose of OSHA is "to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources."  The basic purpose of OSHA is to set safety and health standards and to ensure compliance through inspections and reporting.  The standards are contained in five volumes covering general industry standards, maritime standards, construction standards, other regulations and procedures, and a field operations manual.  The standards are very complete and seem to cover just about any hazard one could think of.  Standards are enforced through a series of inspections and, if necessary, citations.  OSHA may not conduct warrantless inspections without an employer's consent.  It may inspect after acquiring a search warrant.  An authorized employee representative must be given the opportunity to accompany the officer during the inspection.  Employees are protected under the act from discrimination for exercising their disclosure rights.  Employers are responsible for being familiar with OSHA standards and for bringing conditions into compliance.


3. Explain the supervisor's role in safety.  Beyond trying to make the workplace safe, the basic aim of the supervisor is to instill in workers the desire to work safely.  Then, when needed, enforce safety rules.


4. Explain what causes unsafe acts. People are the main cause of unsafe acts.  Some researchers say that certain personal characteristics are the basis for behavior tendencies that result in unsafe acts. There are several human traits that contribute to accident proneness and they are listed in the chapter.  There is also a list of some examples of unsafe acts.


5. Describe at least five techniques for reducing accidents.  The text lists 10 techniques: 1) selection and placement; 2) posters and other propaganda; 3) training; 4) incentive programs and positive reinforcement; 5) top-management commitment; 6) emphasizing safety; 7) establishing a safety policy; 8) setting specific loss control goals; 9) conducting safety and health inspections; 10) monitoring work overload and stress.  These are detailed in the chapter.

 

6. Explain how you would reduce stress at work.  Both environmental and personal factors can lead to job stress.  If individuals are feeling dysfunctional levels of stress, the work schedule, pace of work, job security, and number or nature of clients, modifications in these factors should be made.  Because personal factors influence stress, health and exercise programs can be promoted.  Sometimes counseling should be offered, especially through an EAP, or a job more suitable to the individual should be found.  Supervisors should monitor performance to identify symptoms of stress, and inform the employee of organizational remedies that may be available, such as job transfers or counseling. 


7. Describe the steps employers can take to reduce workplace violence.  Some of the steps employers can take to reduce workplace violence include:  heighten security measures, improve employee screening, provide training on workplace violence, enhance attention given to employee retention and dismissal of violent employees, institute proactive measures for dealing with angry employees, and be aware of the legal constraints associated with workplace violence.

 

INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES


1. Working individually or in groups, answer the question, "Is there such a thing as an accident-prone person?"  Develop your answer using examples of actual people you know who seemed to be accident-prone on some endeavor.  Yes and No.  While most psychologists agree that accident proneness is not universal, most do agree that accident proneness is situational.  For example, personality traits may distinguish accident-prone workers on jobs involving risk, and lack of motor skills may distinguish accident-prone workers on jobs involving coordination.  Many human traits have been found to be related to accident repetition in specific situations. 


2. Working individually or in groups, compile a list of the factors at work or in school that create dysfunctional stress for you.  What methods do you use for dealing with the stress?   The students should refer to the section of the chapter on reducing job stress to compile their lists of stress factors and methods for dealing with the stress, and to also find out more about some specific types of jobs in which they may have an interest.


3. The HRCI “Test Specifications” appendix at the end of this book lists the knowledge someone studying for the HRCI certification exam needs to have in each area of human resource management (such as in Strategic Management, Workforce Planning, and Human Resource Development).  In groups of four to five students, do four things: (1) review that appendix now; (2) identify the material in this chapter that relates to the required knowledge the appendix lists; (3) write four multiple-choice exam questions on this material that you believe would be suitable for inclusion in the HRCI exam; and (4) if time permits, have someone from your team post your team’s questions in front of the class, so the students in other teams can take each others’ exam questions.  The sections of material that relate to the HRCI test would include:  Occupational Safety Law, Management Commitment and Safety, What Causes Accidents, How to Prevent Accidents, Workplace Health Hazards:  Problems and Remedies, and Occupational Security, Safety, and Health in a Post 9/11 World.  In short, virtually the entire chapter is applicable to the test.


4. The journal Occupational Hazards presented some information about what happens when OSHA refers criminal complaints about willful violations of OSHA standards to the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).  Between 1982 and 2002, OSHA referred 119 fatal cases allegedly involving willful violations of OSHA to DOJ for criminal prosecution.  The DOJ declined to pursue 57% of them, and some were dropped for other reasons. Of the remaining 51 cases, the DOJ settled 63% with pretrial settlements involving no prison time.  So, counting acquittals, of the 119 cases OSHA referred to the DOJ, only nine resulted in prison time for at least one of the defendants.  “The Department of Justice is a disgrace,” charged the founder of an organization for family members of workers killed on the job.  One possible explanation for this low conviction rate is that the crime in cases like these is generally a misdemeanor, not a felony, and the DOJ generally tries to focus its attention on felony cases.  Given this information, what implications do you think this has for how employers and their managers should manage their safety programs, and why do you take that position?  Hopefully students will understand that it really should not have any implication as to how they should manage their safety programs.  Just as was discussed in Chapter 14 on Ethics, Justice, and Fair Treatment, the legal implications should be the least of the motivations for doing what is right.  Just because the penalties may not be severe is not a reason to allow unsafe conditions to exist.


5. Recently, a 315-foot-tall, 2-million-pound erection crane collapsed on a construction site in East Toledo, Ohio, killing four ironworkers.  Do you think catastrophic failures like this are avoidable?  If so, what steps would you suggest the general contractor take to avoid a disaster like this?  Without knowing the specifics, the likelihood is that the failure was avoidable.  Most such failures are the result of someone working outside of known safety parameters, or not following (or having established) safety procedures that assure that things are done correctly.


EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES & CASES

Experiential Exercise:  How Safe is My University?


This is a great opportunity for the students to actually use the information they have learned in the chapter to identify unsafe conditions. 



Application Case: The New Safety and Health Program   


1. Based upon your knowledge of health and safety matters and your actual observations of operations that are similar to theirs, make a list of the potential hazardous conditions employees and others face at LearnInMotion.com.  What should they do to reduce the potential severity of the top five hazards?  Tripping, ergonomic, and electrical hazards top the list (with several specific items in each).  There are many techniques and products available to help reduce all these hazards.  Safety procedures are also needed (not working on any electrical item such as computers while they are plugged in).


2. Would it be advisable for them to set up a procedure for screening out stress-prone or accident-prone individuals?  Why or why not?  If so, how should they screen them?  There are a number of issues here.  One likely question from students is whether accident-prone behavior can change with training or incentives. In most cases, training and incentives can resolve the problem. Some students may argue that screening out employees who are accident-prone raises ethical issues.


3. Write a short position paper on the subject, “What should we do to get all our employees to behave more safely at work?”  The paper should include insights gained from this paper and/or work experiences they have.  Look for reasonableness and the likelihood of adoption in real life.


4. Based on what you know and on what other dot-coms are doing, write a short position paper on the subject, “What can we do to reduce the potential problems of stress and burnout in our company?”  The long hours and high pressure need to be reduced, or at least offset in some ways.  Look for creative ways to accomplish this.


Continuing Case:  Carter Cleaning Company – The New Safety Program


1. How should the firm go about identifying hazardous conditions that should be rectified? Use checklists such as Figures 16-6 and 16-11 to list at least 10 possible dry-cleaning store hazardous conditions.    Using the information provide in the case, Internet research, and their personal knowledge, the students should be able to list at least ten potential hazards in a dry-cleaning store, if not more.  This hazard should not be limited to chemical, but should include physical, mechanical, and electrical hazards as well.


2. Would it be advisable for the firm to set up a procedure for screening out accident-prone individuals? How should they do so?  There are a number of issues here.  One likely question from students is whether accident-prone behavior can change with training or incentives. In most cases, training and incentives can resolve the problem. Some students may argue that screening out employees who are accident-prone raises ethical issues.


3. How would you suggest the Carters get all employees to behave more safely at work? Also how would you advise them to get those who should be wearing goggles to do so?  The student should suggest that Carter’s management contact OSHA for assistance in developing safety policies and procedures on the job, along with including suggestions discussed in the chapter.  They should also make it clear that those who violate the policies will be disciplined, and then follow up by doing it.  If employees see that management is serious about it and that they will be disciplined, or even lose their jobs, they will begin to use them.


Translating Strategy into HR Policies and Practices Case: The Hotel Paris


The New Safety and Health Program – In this case, Lisa Cruz, the HR manager, finds that the hotel’s safety record compares unfavorably with the industry statistics. She is intent on developing a safety program.


1. Based on what you read in this chapter, what’s the first step The Hotel Paris should take as part of its new safety and health program, and why?


According to the text, reducing unsafe conditions is always an employer’s first line of defense. Lisa should work on designing jobs to remove hazards and supervisors, and managers should help identify and remove potential hazards immediately. They can then focus on other aspects of safety awareness and training.


2. List ten specific high-risk areas in a typical hotel you believe Lisa and her team should look at first, including examples of the safety or health hazards they should look for there.


Answers will vary. The case notes several areas, including the pool, the valet parking area, and chemical storage areas. Additionally, guest areas like bathtubs will be of concern.


3. Give three specific examples of how Hotel Paris can measure the results of its safety efforts.


Worker’s Compensation costs have been high, so Lisa can measure a reduction in the number of claims, or in total claim costs, lost time injuries, etc.  The hotel can also measure the number and severity of violations that are found on internal safety inspections.


4. Write a one-page summary addressing the topic, "How improving safety and health at the Hotel Paris will contribute to us achieving our strategic goals.”


This summary should include reduced costs, employee satisfaction and safety, guest safety and health, and increased revenues.


KEY TERMS


Occupational Safety and The law passed by Congress in 1970 "to assure so far as possible every

Health Act working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources." 


Occupational Safety and The agency created within the Department of Labor to set safety and

Health Administration health standards for almost all workers in the United States. 

(OSHA)


occupational illness Any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.


citation Summons informing employers and employees of the regulations and standards that have been violated in the workplace.


unsafe conditions The mechanical and physical conditions that cause accidents. 


behavior-based safety Identifying the worker behaviors that contribute to accidents and then training workers to avoid these behaviors.


burnout The total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal. 


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